Push QA Left by using Ticket Templates

Templates are a great way to ensure consistency and create visibility within your teams.

We want a repeatable transparent pattern for our teams to be comfortable with and ultimately, own.

Here is an example of a template I have used:

Define your DOR

Define your ACs

Try and outlines some Use cases:

Have a section to describe high level test cases:

Define your definition of Done and Key Tasks

Mocking GraphQL for unit tests with Cypress

Unit testing GraphQL with Cypress

Cypress is great for front end mocking. Its purpose built for this with Promises in mind.Most commonly, cy.intercept is used for this.Eg.:cy.intercept(‘POST’, ‘/your-backend-api’, {}).as(‘backendAPI’);

cy.wait('@backendAPI').then(xhr => {


Cypress Documentation

Network Requests | Cypress Documentation

What you’ll learn How Cypress enables you to stub out the back end with cy.intercept() What tradeoffs we make when we stub our network requests.


Examples for GraphQL

Cypress Documentation

Working with GraphQL | Cypress Documentation

What you’ll learn Best practices to alias multiple GraphQL queries or mutations for a group of tests. Overriding an existing intercept to modify…


Unit Testing

For an example in .net, we can rely on something like Nunit combined wth Rest Sharp to get our GraphQL service tested.

Rest sharp is really just an option for us to make that REST call

you can use any other

Nunit, its just our assertion library, you can use any other here as well

Java based?

Well using RestTemplates and Junit would do great as basic tools.

Using Native GraphQL

Its best to try and work directly with these components.


Test infrastructure as code

8 types of infrastructure on construction projects - LetsBuild

‘Test infrastructure as code’ should really be part of your Test Strategy or testing game plan for the lack of one.

From experience working with docker and kubernetes, the top benefits for have been:

– easily manage the setup of Ci jobs,

– changes can be tracked and become the single source of truth,

– easily deploy test automation tooling such as selenium and pact infrastructure,

– manage Cloud costs effectively,

– setup and tear down Jenkins nodes with ease,

– easily chain jobs and share volumes if needed,

– deploying across regions, teams and environments are a breeze,

– setting up end to end development and test tooling for manual testing becomes quicker.

#automation #cloud #testing #jenkins #aws #azure #cicd #kubernetes #docker

A Test Automation WorkFlow

To maximise your efficiencies as a test automation engineer, define a solid approach and plan out your test development workflow.

Below, I’ve developed a system for you to follow in building your test automation cases

I invite you to follow the same path or adapt it to meet your teams requirements.

Its good practice to follow a system and with repeatable goals defined. This will make you a stronger but also adaptable tester. Good luck!

API Testing Plan

View an example of an API Contract test case

This is an example for a /users endpoint:

Identify the API implantation and variants : 

GET /usersList all users 
GET /users?name={username}Get user by username
GET /users/{id}Get user by ID
GET /users/{id}/configurationsGet all configurations for user 
POST /users/{id}/configurationsCreate a new configuration for user
DELETE /users/{id}/configurations/{id}Delete configuration for user
PATCH /users/{id}/configuration/{id}Update configuration for user

High Level Test Scope

NameVerbHowHTTP Response CodeAssertion
should return a list of X resourcesGETCall endpoint200Count property should match rows.length, Count must be greater than 1
should filters resourcesGETCall endpoint with filter parameters (limit, sort, start, filter)200Count property, rows.length, id of first and last resource
should return a specific resourceGETCall endpoint with a resource ID200Check each property
should return a 404 if resource not foundGETCall endpoint with a fake resource ID404 
should create a resourcePOSTSend full valid data201Check each property
should fail returning all mandatory propertiesPOSTSend a single non mandatory property400Count number of errors
should fail if …POST“Send data against business logic (null value, blank value, unicity, shorter than expected, bad relation …)”400Check reason/code of error
should update the resourcePATCHSend full valid data (set a property id which should be ignored)200Check each property
should fail if …PATCH“Send data against business logic (null value, blank value, unicity, shorter than expected, bad relation …)”200Check reason/code of error
should return a 404 if resource not foundPATCHCall endpoint with a fake resource ID and send full valid data404 
should delete the resourceDELETECall endpoint with a resource ID204If hard delete, check if the resource doesn’t exist anymore in DB. If soft delete, check the resource has a deletedAt value not null
should delete the resourceDELETECall endpoint with a fake resource ID204 

Detailed Test Scope

Where {id} is a UUID, and all GET endpoints allow optional query parameters filtersortskip and limit for filtering, sorting, and pagination. 

#Test Scenario Category Test Action CategoryTest Action Description
1Basic positive tests (happy paths)  
 Execute API call with valid required parametersValidate
status code:
1. All requests should return 2XX HTTP status code

2. Returned status code is according to spec: 
– 200 OK for GET requests
– 201 for POST or PUT requests creating a new resource 
– 200, 202, or 204 for a DELETE operation and so on
1. Response is a well-formed JSON object

2. Response structure is according to data model (schema validation: field names and field types are as expected, including nested objects; field values are as expected; non-nullable fields are not null, etc.)
1. For GET requests, verify there is NO STATE CHANGE in the system (idempotence)

2. For POST, DELETE, PATCH, PUT operations
– Ensure action has been performed correctly in the system by:
– Performing appropriate GET request and inspecting response
– Refreshing the UI in the web application and verifying new state (only applicable to manual testing)
Verify that HTTP headers are as expected, including content-type, connection, cache-control, expires,
access-control-allow-origin, keep-alive, HSTS and other standard header fields – according to spec.

Verify that information is NOT leaked via headers (e.g. X-Powered-By header is not sent to user). 
  Performance sanity:Response is received in a timely manner (within reasonable expected time) – as defined in the test plan.
2Positive + optional parameters   
 Execute API call with valid required parameters AND valid optional parameters

Run same tests as in #1, this time including the endpoint’s optional parameters (e.g., filter, sort, limit, skip, etc.) 
status code:
As in #1
Verify response structure and content as in #1.  

In addition, check the following parameters:
– filter: ensure the response is filtered on the specified value. 
– sort: specify field on which to sort, test ascending and descending options. Ensure the response is sorted according to selected field and sort direction.
– skip: ensure the specified number of results from the start of the dataset is skipped
– limit: ensure dataset size is bounded by specified limit. 
– limit + skip: Test pagination

Check combinations of all optional fields (fields + sort + limit + skip) and verify expected response.  
As in #1
As in #1
  Performance sanity:As in #1
3Negative testing – valid input   
 Execute API calls with valid input that attempts illegal operations. i.e.:

– Attempting to create a resource with a name that already exists (e.g., user configuration with the same name)

– Attempting to delete a resource that doesn’t
exist (e.g., user configuration with no such ID)

– Attempting to update a resource with illegal valid data (e.g., rename a configuration to an existing name)

– Attempting illegal operation (e.g., delete a user configuration without permission.)

And so forth.
status code:
1. Verify that an erroneous HTTP status code is sent (NOT 2XX)

2. Verify that the HTTP status code is in accordance with error case as defined in spec 
1. Verify that error response is received

2. Verify that error format is according to spec. e.g., error is a valid JSON object or a plain string (as defined in spec)

3. Verify that there is a clear, descriptive error message/description field

4. Verify error description is correct for this error case and in accordance with spec 
As in #1
  Performance sanity:Ensure error is received in a timely manner (within reasonable expected time)
4Negative testing – invalid input  
 Execute API calls with invalid input, e.g.:

– Missing or invalid authorization token
– Missing required parameters
– Invalid value for endpoint parameters, e.g.:
– Invalid UUID in path or query parameters
– Payload with invalid model (violates schema)
– Payload with incomplete model (missing fields or required nested entities)
– Invalid values in nested entity fields
– Invalid values in HTTP headers
– Unsupported methods for endpoints 

And so on.
status code:
As in #1
As in #1
As in #1
  Performance sanity:As in #1
5Destructive testing  
 Intentionally attempt to fail the API to check its robustness:
Malformed content in request

Wrong content-type in payload

Content with wrong structure

Overflow parameter values. E.g.:
– Attempt to create a user configuration with a title longer than 200 characters

– Attempt to GET a user with invalid UUID
which is 1000 characters long

– Overflow payload – huge JSON in request body

Boundary value testing 

Empty payloads

Empty sub-objects in payload

Illegal characters in parameters or payload 

Using incorrect HTTP headers (e.g. Content-Type)

Small concurrency tests – concurrent API calls that write to the same resources (DELETE + PATCH, etc.)

Other exploratory testing
As in #3. API should fail gracefully. 
  Validate payload:

Validate headers:
As in #3. API should fail gracefully. As in #3. API should fail gracefully. 
As in #3. API should fail gracefully. 

Browser based UX Testing

Lets set the scene

So, there you are… having a UI and an entire suite of manual test cases. These tests are tedious, take forever and lets be honest…can get repetitive and boring!

My friend, you are in the frontline for automating your testing!


Lets not beat around the bush – Selenium has been around for ages. The product has had millions of users, has become a W3 standard and is launching selenium 4 pretty soon.

This is the tool for us. 

There are others yes, most of which will wrap some selenium WebDriver capability into a pretty package and sell you that at a pretty penny.

Lets not get the wool pull over our eyes.  

We can do the same, implement at the same level and in fact, have far greater control on our test product ….cheaper, faster, better.

Ok, before we get butterflies in our tummies over this tool, there are some pitfalls…urhgggg, of course.

Not to worry, we have help – in our demo below, I will show you how I implemented Selenide – an open source project to fill the gaps that were obvious in Selenium 3.

You can read up on the tools here: 




A wrapper around selenium with a few more fluent apis for us to work with. therefore, it is my. preferred library. 


Show me the baby trees(bacon is nice but baby trees are better)

Head on over to my github page and you will find a FEW implementations of UI testing,

https://github.com/suveerprithipal to find this code and more. Dont limit yourself. There are many ways of implementing this.

Here is one I’ve taken from https://github.com/suveerprithipal/selenideJava which implements Selenide.


 * @author Suveer Prithipal

public class GoogleTest {
  public void googlePageTest(){
      No need to create a webdriver instance!
      Selenide provides with easy to use API's that provide rich functionality.
      On a normal day with selenium, we would need to create a webdriver instance, and bind it to a browser.
      We would also need to define page elements to use them.
      Selenide removes the need to do this by wrapping up that into a singe API.
      Below, we use "open" to create the webdriver instance, and bind it to a class.
      Passing it a class, provides the shape for the instance, giving it methods and defined functionality.
    GooglePage googlePage = open("http://www.google.com",GooglePage.class);

      Now that we have an instance of webdriver up and we are on our test app, Google.
      We can then search something.
      Searching for something means it will return a result.
      Therefore, we need a class to take the shape of these results.
    SearchResultsPage searchResultsPage = googlePage.searchGoogle("selenide");

    Now that we have results, we can perform tests.
    Below, we use the searchResultsPage and query the class for expected results.
    searchResultsPage.getResults().get(0).shouldHave(text("Selenide: concise UI tests in Java"));

    Use page object models and design patterns
    This example is to demo the ease of use with Selenide.
    Its important to separate out your implementation for better maintenance, easy of reading and debugging.


In Code – Get going in 3 easy steps

This project is written in Java, uses the page object model and is triggered by a BDD Cucumber feature file. Learn these terms well. 

Lets get into it:

Step 1: Define our Page Objects

The things you want to interact with on a page like:

  • buttons
  • lists
  • labels
  • text inputs

Step 2: Step Definition

Step definitions are the glue that will bring a workflow to your elements and bind them your feature file.

Here we chain our actions together and feed them input using our feature file.

Eg, the loginCuke() method:

  • we open up the site in a web page using Selenide. A 1 liner which will handle a lot of the grunt of selenium behind the scenes.
  • we then proceed to run the login method that will:
    • take our input username and password from the feature file and process the login method. 

Step 3: Create your feature file

Feature files are BDD scribed tests.

We write these in plain english and translate that to code…as we did above

Thats it! run your feature file and wait for the results.

You’ll see the browser opening and doing things. Screenshots are a default on failure with Selenide so you’ll have that too!


Reporting is a must in any project. Please have a look at my other content for more details or pursue your own.


UI testing has been around for a while and is getting easier, cheaper and simpler to implement.

With the older versions selenium we had to code a lot to get a page to open, while today we can achieve this in 1 line with a very fluent api.

Write once, test 1000 times on all browsers

our tools allow us to test on all browsers and any version…. simultaneously.

A bless in the UI testing world as it allows us to drastically reduce our testing time and therefore our cost to service testing.

Writing our own frameworks gives us greater advantage in scale and capability. 

Nothing is more fore-filling than overcoming a challenge by learning, trying and failing!

Visibility – Your tests have value, showcase them.


Having automated tests are great! … but not sharing the results or centralizing them is not so great. 😦

Your automated tests have undeniable business value, don’t be shy about it. Excellence does not happen overnight. So even if your tests are in early development, share the results with your team.

So what can you do?

  • Setup a nightly run using some CI tool. I like Jenkins 😉
  • Promote the results by using a dashboard, email or a tool like slack.
  • Address failed tests daily. Fix them or add them to a backlog. Fix these soonest.
  • Prep a backlog of test automation scenarios that the entire team supports and can contribute towards.

In conclusion: 

Visibility and Reliability are really important. This makes them trust worthy, needed… valuable. 

Pursue it viciously. Take small incremental steps towards implementation.

UX Testing with Docker

Image result for browser automation


Ola! Thanks for popping in and having a squiz

Today I’ll like to showcase how we can make our browser based test faster and more efficient by making use of 



Docker is a great resource to use as we have the ability to spin up and environment for testing and then very quickly throw it away again.

OMG why would you do that?

Well that the power and presence of docker and containers. We can spin up, tear down and re-use this resource multiple times and we should do so, without attachment, 

Docker support is amazing. there are heaps of predefined containers that just require us to pull and use instead of us having to write and maintain those scripts, environments and data.

Its like magic at your fingertips

Image result for magic meme

Selenium Grid

Grid is an extension out from Selenium which give us the ability to run our tests remotely.

Lets look at some of the key benefits:

  • Run tests remotely
  • Run tests in different browsers with the change of a config
  • Run tests in parallel – our biggest win. 
  • Reduce test time and therefore the feedback cycle.


Start up the Selenium Grid

We’ll make use of the predefined selenium-docker containers.

This setup makes use of a dockerfile which will spin up 3 environments:

  • Hub
  • Chrome Node
  • Firefox Node

Pull the image from: https://github.com/SeleniumHQ/docker-selenium

Head on into your download dir and docker-compose up, you will see the following: 

What we want to look out for:

  • The Hub starts up and publishes a url and port.
    • in our case: localhost:4444
  • The chrome node started up and registered against the hub
  • The firefox node started up and registered against the hub

Navigate to the grid:

In your browser, open up: http://localhost:4444/grid/console

You will see:- 

You are viewing the grid, and the child worker nodes it has available. 

Thats it! your grid is up and running –

how damn easy was that!

Image result for winning meme

But we’re not done. We need to change our test application code to hit this new environment.

Implement the Hook into the grid

To open the browser we need to establish some browser capabilities to start up our browser.

These are seen as ChromeOptions(),

We need to apply these setttings so that we can start up a browser on a linux terminal with no display adapter. We set the headless option in particular for this.

We then need to point our RemoteWebDriver to the new url,

We do so by setting the  urlToRemoteWD variable, which point to the url of the grid.

Run your test

When we run our test, – 

Our test is published to the master

The master will inspect which node is free and available and will push the test to run there.

The results are fed back to the master and then fed back to our test application for reporting. 

You are ALL DONE and ready to run a battery of tests against AWS or locally, headed or headless. 

Image result for great success

API Testing Ref Card

Mike Dean Is One Red Card Away From Giving Out 100 In The Premier ...

No. Not that type of ref card! 

Pictured above is Mike Dean, a familiar face for those English PL football lovers.


Its been a while since we life’d per normal and I jabbered on about something. Certainly for me personally, it’s been an experience of all sorts.

Thankfully though, it has not been a difficult one and I hope the same for you.

With that, let’s get to it.


Today, it can be no surprise to you that Orion is moving into the container world at speed.

When I think containers, I think Micro-Services and when I think micro-services I think APIs.


Testing APIs

Compared to traditional test automation, API testing is so much

  • cleaner to maintain
  • faster to run
  • IMO, easier to implement
Me. Bean meme - Imgflip

A guide on REST API Testing

Identifying Test Cases 

When working with APIs, we have 4 main(but not limited to) sections that we would work with. 

Lets break it down the API

  • The endpoint

The endpoint is the actual URL under test. This is your gateway to access the information under test.

With any System under test. knowing what you’re putting in is super important as these should build the foundation of your test cases. 

  • The header

Most things in life come with info that isn’t really for you. This can be applied to phone calls, emails, dinner chats and even our APIs.

Meta is built into the header of your API. Sometimes this information is handy to you or set by the developers. working with headers is a need today

as most Auth services will embed a token in the header of the API.

  • The auth

Of course, no touching if you’re not allowed. Auth is a MUST test, must know must can do.

  • The payload

And last but not least, our apple… the payload. 

The payload is the carrier of data, messages and usually all things requested by the consumer. 

Response Codes

APis communicate over HTTP but do so using different methods and with any form of communication some feedback is always nice. 

Apis too respond in various manner depending on circumstance.

Below is a table that represents that response code and the meaning behind it. Get familiar with these as you’ll see them quite often.

Testing REST API Manually


Api Testing lends itself quite easily to being structured, well documented and fast to implement.

There are heaps of tools to be used and the benefits of testing repeatedly can be seen quick.